Though, the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs has been referred to a number of issues, but the exact toxicity mechanism is not completely illuminated and still controversial, as there are some queries within the spectrum of antibacterial activity requiring deep explanations. ZnO-NPs possess unique properties and excellent stability with long life compared with organic-based disinfectants that stimulated its use as antibacterial agent. 78(3), 595–604 (2006). doi:10.1016/S0922-338X(98)80165-7, A. Lipovsky, Y. Nitzan, A. Gedanken, R. Lubart, Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles—the role of ROS mediated cell injury. Safa Kasap (Springer, 2007), pp. Moreover, in recent years, the pathogenic bacteria have exhibited antimicrobial resistance, and this emerged as hot subject of discussion among researchers in this field. Kim, Y.K. Chem. Accessed 13 Feb 2008, H. de Azeredo, Antimicrobial nanostructures in food packaging. Med. doi:10.5772/1869, Q. Chaudhry, L. Castle, Food applications of nanotechnologies: an overview of opportunities and challenges for developing countries.  increased the surface area of ZnO nanorods by annealing under oxygen and air to stimulate formation of nanoholes on the surface to increase the surface area, and on turn have caused high absorption and diffusion of oxygen molecules onto the surface upon UV light exposure, which consequently assisted in generating more ROS on the surface. The larger the surface area and the higher concentration of oxygen species on the surface can obtain greater antibacterial activity by smaller particles, which was in contrast to that of Franklin et al. Rep. Prog. 6, it was observed that higher concentration of ZnO caused higher bacterial inhibition. Hafez, H.S. The increasing focus on ZnONPs resulted in the development of various synthesis approaches including chemical, pHysical, and green or biological for the manufacturing of ZnONPs. Other benefits also are achieved such as the barrier properties, constancy, and mechanical capability . c As such, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes including bacteria, fungi and yeast are exploited for the synthesis of ZnO NPs by using microbial cells or enzyme, protein and other … 13(3), 136–140 (2008). Appl. The dissolution of ZnO-NPs into Zn2+ was reported as size dependent, and few studies suggested this dissolution of Zn2+ responsible for toxicity of ZnO-NPs. The physicochemical properties of ZnO-NPs and dissolved zinc species depend upon the medium components. by A. Méndez-Vilas (Formatex, Badajoz, 2011), pp. It is one of the cheap materials in cosmetic industry, nanofertilizers, and electrical devices and also a suitable agent for bioimaging and targeted drug and gene delivery and an e… World Health Organ 77(8), 651–666 (1999), Y.G. As a result, the cell membrane is damaged. In some cases, enhanced antibacterial activity can be attributed to surface defects on ZnO abrasive surface texture. Epub 2020 Jun 17. Mishra, J. Musarrat, A.A. Al-Khedhairy, Reactive oxygen species mediated bacterial biofilm inhibition via zinc oxide nanoparticles and their statistical determination. The researchers found that just 2 mM of ZnO-NPs with reduced sizes decreased bacterial growth by 99 %. Nanoscale 5(9), 3834–3840 (2013). Generally, it has been observed from the intensive studies held, that the antibacterial activity of ZnO can be verified under UV light as well as in the dark to inhibit the bacterial growth. 52(1), 1–6 (2012). doi:10.1155/2011/628203, Z. Xu, J.-Y. J. Vary, C.-T. Lin, Anatase TiO2 nanocomposites for antimicrobial coatings. Additionally, Zn2+ release would be limited by an inherent ZnO property, mentioned earlier ZnO stability in water. Further, ZnONPs have also been used as an effective carrier for the targeted delivery of several anticancer drugs into tumor cells. Yamamoto  examined the influence of ZnO-NPs size (100–800 nm) on the antibacterial activity, against S. aureus and E. coli by changing the electrical conductivity with bacterial growth. Meanwhile Sawai et al. 1205–1210. We found that UVA illumination had significantly influenced the interaction of both ZnO samples with the targeted bacteria compared with unexposed ZnO. have resulted in a rapid increase of titania and zinc oxide in sunscreens. The authors targeted a number of major gram-negative and gram-positive strains, and revealed that ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity was inversely proportional to the particle size. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.07.033, J.M. Tak, J.M. ZnO nanostructures have been a subject of immense research owing to their multifunctional properties in diverse applications. Lett. Mahmood, Performance Yu, H. Sun, P.K.-H. Tam, J.-F. Chiu, C.-M. Che, Proteomic analysis of the mode of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. Sukon Phanichphantand, Antimicrobial nanomaterials in Benedetti, F. Fiévet, Toxicological impact studies based on Escherichia coli bacteria in ultrafine ZnO nanoparticles colloidal medium. The agar diffusion method (an indirect method) is the most frequently used method and has been standardized as an official method for detecting bacteriostatic activity by the (ATCC). However, the influence of these parameters is not entirely elucidated. Moreover, the antibacterial activity toward S. enterica serovar Enteritidis was also determined at lower concentration. Leung et al. A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. 44(4), 1484–1489 (2010). Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) has received significant interest worldwide particularly by the implementation of nanotechnology to synthesize particles in the nanometer region. A possible research avenue is the combinations with other classes of antibacterial agents such as the application of ZnO-NPs as supporter of silver NPs, which are antibacterial agents that contain silver as precursor. Silva, P. Santiago-Silva, P.J.P Espitia, M.P.J.C. A number of significant breakthroughs have emerged in the areas of antimicrobial applications, as in the food industry. (2012). 40(14), 4374–4381 (2006). Functionalized ZnO surface leads to best antibacterial responses. ZnO-doped samples exhibited considerably high activity toward S. aureus (skin bacteria) in comparison to E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Growth curves were typically obtained via monitoring the optical density (OD), at wavelength of 600 nm, a typical wavelength for cells. These nanostructures have been fabricated using variety of physical and chemical techniques; however, the chemical techniques allow better control of the particle size and morphology . Rani, D. Menon, S. Nair, K. Manzoor, S. Raina, Role of size scale of ZnO nanoparticles and microparticles on toxicity toward bacteria and osteoblast cancer cells. We have extensively reviewed the anticancer mechanism of ZnONPs on different types of cancers considering its size, shape and surface charge dependent cytotoxicity. PubMed Google Scholar. The wide band gap of ZnO has significant effect on its properties, such as the electrical conductivity and optical absorption. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.047, B. Aydin Sevinç, L. Hanley, Antibacterial activity of dental composites containing zinc oxide nanoparticles. doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2011.02.003, T.V. Med. 121 have reported the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles that show bright yellow fluorescence under UV illumination. TiO2 and TiO2–Ag antimicrobial thin films, in Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Zinc oxide nanoparticles are well-known metal oxide nanoparticles having numbers of applications in the field of cosmetology, medicine, and chemistry. In this paper, we have extensively reviewed ideas behind the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs covering techniques of evaluating bacteria viability. Goswami, Synthesis, characterization, and applications of ZnO nanowires. The focus also made towards the safety assessment of the several nanoparticles. Grisham, G.E. doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-404, S. Baruah, M.A. In this article, at first we have discussed the various synthesis methods of ZnONPs and secondly its biomedical applications. As well, Ramani et al. Photobiol. Both bacteria showed decreased growth rate at the highest concentration 100 μL, and they explained the growth inhibition as a result of cell membrane damage through penetration of ZnO-NPs.  found that the action of ZnO-NPs on C. jejuni has stimulated morphology disorder, intracellular components outflow, and considerable release in gene expression of oxidative stress of C. jejuni. Keywords: Matter 16(25), R829–R858 (2004). J. Biosens. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2011.09.031, W. Salem, D.R. Therefore, engineered nanostructures might modify their toxicity by manipulating the dissolution rate [80, 107, 117, 119, 120]. This review covers the significant pharmaceutical and biological aspects of … Thus, the cell surface is negatively charged, interestingly, ZnO-NPs contain a positive charge in a water suspension . Issues of aggregation, re-precipitation, settling, or non-dissolution impede the synthesis processes. Davies, P.A. Review on zinc oxide nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and toxicity mechanism. Surface defects play an important role; Ramani et al. C 32(8), 2381–2389 (2012). Klabunde, Metal oxide nanoparticles as bactericidal agents. However, the number of reports has indicated its toxicity also such as hepatotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. 22(11), 2376–2386 (2012). Further discussions are in Sect. Gadd, P.S. Technol. In this regards, a number of researchers considered this difficulty by using certain additives that have no significant effect in the antibacterial activity. Autoclaved distilled water (0.1 mL) was added to the plates that did not show any bacterial growth. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2009.05.015, T.J. Brunner, P. Wick, P. Manser, P. Spohn, R.N.  have synthesized the flower-shaped, prism, snowflakes, and rod-like morphologies ZnO, at a high temperature of 180 °C for 13 h. The researchers also prepared prism-like and prickly sphere-like ZnO via decomposition process at 100 °C for 13 h. These nanostructures plus others such as nanowires, nanoplates, and nanorods have been key factors for the antibacterial activity, as each morphology accounts for a certain mechanism of action.  studied the morphology-dependent dissolution of metal ions. Nanotechnology is a research hot spot in modern materials science. MIC was determined by the lowest concentration of each NPs, which inhibited the growth. Technol. The creation of ROS in the dark was observed by Hirota et al. In addition to the enhancement of internalization, it has been suggested regarding the contribution of the polar facets of ZnO nanostructured to the antibacterial activity, that the higher number of polar surfaces possess higher amount of oxygen vacancies. Yoon, Developing a testing method for antimicrobial efficacy on TiO2 photocatalytic products. Nanomaterials possess great concern in food technology for their high reactivity, enhanced bioavailability and bioactivity, and have creative surface possessions . doi:10.4172/2155-6210.1000e109, H. Karami, E. Fakoori, Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanorods based on a new gel pyrolysis method. 7(9), 1063–1077 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.12.033, H. Zhang, X. Lv, Y. Li, Y. Wang, J. Li, P25–graphene composite as a high performance photocatalyst. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.12.025, J. Pasquet, Y. Several studies have believed that the leaked Zn2+ into growth media responsible for ZnO nanotoxicity and the dissolution of ZnO-NPs into Zn2+ were found as size dependent. Tong, F.-F. Du, Y. Liang, Q. Hu, R.-N. Wu, J.-G. Guan, X. Hu, Polymorphous ZnO complex architectures: selective synthesis, mechanism, surface area and Zn-polar plane-codetermining antibacterial activity. We acknowledge the financial support from a research university Grant number 1001/PFIZIK/814174 of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). For example, the result of the current–voltage measurements (IV) showed significant increase in surface conductance (7-fold for ZnO-rod and 5-fold for ZnO-plate) due to a decrease in the depletion layer upon UVA illumination. Swenson, in Methods for Determining Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Agents; Approved Guideline, vol. J. Nanomed. doi:10.1021/la7035949, T. Xia, M. Kovochich, M. Liong, L. Mädler, B. Gilbert, H. Shi, J.I. Res. Their findings also showed that the activity can be achieved under UV illumination, ambient light, or even in the dark. Oxygen vacancies are known to increase the generation of ROS and consequently affect the photocatalytic of ZnO . 6(404), 1–7 (2011). doi:10.1252/jcej.29.627, N.M. Franklin, N.J. Rogers, S.C. Apte, G.E. Irwin, T. Jin, X. Shi, Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Campylobacter jejuni. B 94(1), 22–31 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.02.017, H. Yang, C. Liu, D. Yang, H. Zhang, Z. Xi, Comparative study of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by four typical nanomaterials: the role of particle size, shape and composition. Res. Sci.  performed an interesting study using ZnO nanofluids. A large number of studies investigated on the considerable impact of particle size on the antibacterial activity, and the researchers found that controlling ZnO-NPs size was crucial to achieve best bactericidal response, and ZnO-NPs with smaller size (higher specific surface areas) showed highest antibacterial activity [40, 51, 88]. Limbach, A. Bruinink, W.J. This technology is capable of providing miscellaneous novel applications that range from innovative fabric compounds, food processing, and agricultural production to sophisticated medicinal techniques . S. aureus plating for colony count . Notably, evidence has shown that zinc is an important nutrient in living organisms. Beest, R. Rijk, T. Sipiläinen-Malm, P.P. Interesting applications of ZnO-NPs can be achieved by controlling the defects, impurities, and the associated charge carriers. J. Photochem.  who found no size-related effect. doi:10.1039/C4NR02366H, X. Peng, S. Palma, N.S. They concluded that ZnO-NPs synthesized by wet chemical method are potential antibacterial agents in food preservation and packaging. Appl. These different morphologies displayed pronounced antibacterial effect toward the targeted bacteria. 5(12), 1368–1373 (2011), N. Padmavathy, R. Vijayaraghavan, Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study. Škapin, D. Uskoković, Morphology Controlled hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO particles and examination of their antibacterial properties on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cultures, in Tenth Young Researchers’ Conference—Materials Science and Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia, 21–23 December 2011 (Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, Belgrade, 2011), p. 62, V. Berry, A. Gole, S. Kundu, C.J. The synthesis of nano-sized ZnO has led to the investigation of its use as new antibacterial agent. Int. Yam, P.T. Also, images of the NPs interacted with the packaging materials can be obtained by SEM and TEM. 69(7), 4278–4281 (2003). Kelf, W.H. Ward, T.J. Webster, Increased osteoblast and decreased Staphylococcus epidermidis functions on nanophase ZnO and TiO2. While Stanković et al. However, this will necessitates further researches to adequately scrutinize the NPs properties. B 102, 21–28 (2013). The effect of the pH value of the reaction medium in the antibacterial activity mechanism has been considered. 9(7), 1181–1189 (2013), Y. Matsumura, K. Yoshikata, S.-I. In spite of its simple chemical formula, ZnO has very rich defect chemistry , which is associated with its antimicrobial activity. The properties can be tailored by shape and size, resulting in renewable applications relevant to their structural properties. Amna Sirelkhatim. doi:10.1021/es9030497, W. Jiang, H. Mashayekhi, B. Xing, Bacterial toxicity comparison between nano- and micro-scaled oxide particles. Surface defects strongly affect the toxicity of ZnO. doi:10.1063/1.1992666, A. Moezzi, A.M. McDonagh, M.B. Many pronounced applications are being currently explored in the biomedical and antiviral areas. Fan, J.G. (Roll NO-607bm004), National Institute of Technology, 2011, C. Buzea, I.I. In the subsequent sections, we have discussed the factors affecting the antibacterial activity, including UV illumination, ZnO particle size, concentration, morphology, surface modifications by annealing, surface defects, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Rao, G.N. Microbiol. Technol. Yun, H.-S. Shin, Formation of ZnO micro-flowers prepared via solution process and their antibacterial activity. One of these essential applications is in food industry; as an antibacterial agent in food packaging and towards foodborne pathogen. Yang, S. Liu, The potent antimicrobial properties of cell penetrating peptide-conjugated silver nanoparticles with excellent selectivity for Gram-positive bacteria over erythrocytes. Similarly, spherical shaped ZnO-NPs in another investigation  were obtained via soft chemical solution process, and it was used for the treatment of bacteria (E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, and S. acidaminiphila) and cancer cells (HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines). These modified features allow the NPs to interact in a unique manner with cell biomolecules and thus facilitate the physical transfer of NPs into the inner cellular structures . The solution process was used by several researchers to produce selective ZnO nanostructures. J. Phys. ZnO possesses high optical absorption in the UVA (315–400 nm) and UVB (280–315 nm) regions which is beneficial in antibacterial response and used as a UV protector in cosmetics . Other methods are different according to the investigated parameters. ZnO is a bio-safe material that possesses photo-oxidizing and photocatalysis impacts on chemical and biological species. Ranjit, A.C. The CFU for each plate was then counted and incubated for 24 h to determine the bacteria growth rates. Int. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.01.014, J. Sawai, E. Kawada, F. Kanou, H. Igarashi, A. Hashimoto, T. Kokugan, M. Shimizu, Detection of active oxygen generated from ceramic powders having antibacterial activity. Moreover, the surface properties affect the reactions on the bacterial cell walls. Park, C.-Y. doi:10.1128/AEM.69.7.4278-4281.2003, K.R. Contam. the textile industry, in Bionanotechnology II Global Prospects, ed. NPs are known as controlled or manipulated particles at the atomic level (1–100 nm). Kaushik, N. Kaushik, E.H. Choi, A. Umar, S. Dwivedi, J. Musarrat, A.A. Al-Khedhairy, ZnO nanoparticles induces cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas, KB and non-malignant HEK cells. The transparent particles, which effectively filter out ultraviolet-a (UVA) and ultraviolet-b (UVB) light, are then coated with inert silicon or aluminum oxide layers and tend to clump together into groups that are 200 to 500 nanometers in diameter. Bull. Medeiros, Zinc oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, antimicrobial activity and food packaging applications. doi:10.1021/la9028172, O. Yamamoto, M. Komatsu, J. Sawai, Z.-E. Nakagawa, Effect of lattice constant of zinc oxide on antibacterial characteristics. USA.gov. They show size-related properties significantly different from bulk materials . 1–6. doi:10.1007/s12668-012-0061-6, K. Chitra, G. Annadurai, Antimicrobial activity of wet chemically engineered spherical shaped ZnO nanoparticles on food borne pathogen. Sunscreens are physical and chemical UV absorbers. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.10.003, B. Kalyanaraman, V. Darley-Usmar, K.J. This phenomenon induced the generation of ROS from ZnO surface, as described earlier. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.09.030, D. Guo, H. Bi, B. Liu, Q. Wu, D. Wag, Y. Cui, Reactive oxygen species-induced cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rat retinal ganglion cells. Based on the toxicity mechanism of ZnO-NPs, this review concludes that the toxicity differs from one study to another according to the test conditions, further mechanisms and researches are currently being investigated. 8(2), 904–915 (2012). Goharshadi, M. Abareshi, M. Moosavi, A. Yousefi, P. Nancarrow, ZnO nanofluids: green synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity. b Bacterial cell structures, reused from Earth Doctor, Inc., formerly Alken-Murray . Nano-Micro Lett. While panels d–f show the inhibition viability, with ZnO-NPs of very small size (∼12 nm), that inhibited about 95 % of the growth with respect to the control (0 mM). Environ. Synthesis and growth techniques lead to holding numerous active facets in NP. Xie, L.-S. Zheng, Shape-dependent antibacterial activities of Ag2O polyhedral particles. by P.C. Trends Food Sci. Recently, the need for novel technologies to control foodborne pathogens is increasing, due to the alarming increase in fatalities and hospitalization worldwide. An identical finding showed the attachment of ZnO-NPs to outer cell wall and passing in the inner wall, causing disruption of the membrane and consequent disorder and leakage . Bell, D.G. Whereas gram-negative bacteria wall is composed of two cell membranes, an outer membrane and a plasma membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan  with a thickness of 7–8 nm. J. Biomed. Sci. doi:10.1021/es102624t, J. Sawai, S. Shoji, H. Igarashi, A. Hashimoto, T. Kokugan, M. Shimizu, H. Kojima, Hydrogen peroxide as an antibacterial factor in zinc oxide powder slurry. The TGA has been continuously monitoring the emerging scientific literature in this area and working cooperatively with international regulatory agencies to ensure that ap… Reducing the size to nanoscale can modify their chemical, mechanical, electrical, structural, morphological, and optical properties. This process inspired the use of the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-NPs in bionanotechnology and in bionanomedicine for many antibacterial applications. Roberts, J. Rička, M. Frenz, A.V. J. Rasayan Chem. Nanotechnol. This finding confirms that gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible to inhibition compared to gram-negative bacteria. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.01012.x, R. Jalal, E.K. Both phase and atomic structures confirmed the polycrystalline arrangement of ZnO nanoparticles. Environ. J. Microbiol. Chevalier, J. Pelletier, E. Couval, D. Bouvier, M.-A. 3(1), 1–6 (2013), E.E. Increased outbreaks and infections of pathogenic strains, bacterial antibiotic resistance, emergence of new bacterial mutations, lack of suitable vaccine in underdeveloped countries, and hospital-associated infections, are global health hazard to human, particularly in children. This resulted in a 1:2 dilution of each ZnO concentration and a 1:2 dilution of the inoculums 5 × 105 CFU mL−1. J. Med. As it is known that ZnO absorbs UV light, it has an excellent photocatalytic property, thus it is believed that UV stimulated the ZnO in the mixture to release electrons, which leads to produce more oxygen within the mixture. 72(12), 126501 (2009). The excitonic emission can persevere higher at room temperature  and the conductivity increases when ZnO doped with other metals . In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) emerged as an excellent candidate in the field of optical, electrical, food packaging and particularly in biomedical research. Edwards, K.J. The structure is thermodynamically stable in an ambient environment , and usually illustrated schematically as a number of alternating planes of Zn and O ions stacked alongside the c-axis. Mainly, by improving factors like UV illumination, ZnO particle size, concentration, morphology, and surface modification, powerful antibacterial results would be obtained. One functional application of the ZnO antibacterial bioactivity was discussed in food packaging industry where ZnO-NPs are used as an antibacterial agent toward foodborne diseases. Res. under darkness, producing superoxide species; which is in consistence with Jones et al. doi:10.1063/1.2742324, O. Yamamoto, Influence of particle size on the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. For example, infections by Shigella flexneri cause 1.5 million deaths annually, due to contaminated food and drinks by these bacteria . Langmuir 24(8), 4140–4144 (2008). Bakhori, A. Sirelkhatim, D. Mohamad, H. Hasan, A. Seeni, R.A. Rahman, Effect of surface modification and UVA photoactivation on antibacterial bioactivity of zinc oxide powder. Therefore, ZnO-rod tends to have relatively higher O:Zn ratio than other ZnO-structures, i.e., higher amounts of oxygen atoms on rod surface, which generates ROS causing intense oxidative stress toward the bacteria. 3g). J. Biomed. Semin. Int. Bokhari, M. Khalid, Synthesis, antibacterial, lipoxygenase and urease inhibitory activities of 2-aminophenol derivatives. An antibacterial agent is considered as bactericidal if it kills bacteria or as bacteriostatic if it inhibits their growth. with Table 1 displaying some synthesis methods and their corresponding morphology of ZnO. Modified procedures along with the standard methods are also used by a large body of researchers. Further suggestions for the bactericide achievement are the inhibition of energy metabolism, once NPs have internalized bacteria. Green technology (biosynthesis) is playing a vital role in the synthesis of nanoparticles due to low cost, non-toxicity and other environmental advantages. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/47/475703, A. Hsu, F. Liu, Y.H. J. The resultant ZnO samples were tested against three bacterial strains (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus). doi:10.1128/AEM.02218-06, B. Ashe, A Detail investigation to observe the effect of zinc oxide and Silver nanoparticles in biological system, M.Sc. Ag-loaded ZnO speculated as a new kind of precursor for inorganic antibacterial agents. Mater. Med. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2006.12.001, L. Liu, J. Yang, J. Xie, Z. Luo, J. Jiang, Y.Y. 73(6), 1712–1720 (2007).  reported that ZnO-NPs inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a size- and concentration-dependent manner.  fulfilled their antibacterial tests using four types of NPs (TiO2, MgO, CuO, and CeO2) which have not considerably inhibited the bacteria growth (more than 10 mM). 20(1), 235–241 (2009). Mater. doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2692-2, R. Wahab, M.A. Appl. Sci. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are well-known metal oxide nanoparticles having numbers of applications in the field of cosmetology, medicine, and chemistry. ZnO-NPs concentrations that are 20–100 times were required for decreasing 1–2 logs of cells viability. Bammidi, Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. 77(7), 2325–2331 (2011). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111289, W. Song, J. Zhang, J. Guo, J. Zhang, F. Ding, L. Li, Z.  have used the flow cytometry viability assays to examine ZnO-NPs toxicity toward E. coli and S. aureus. Wingett, C. Hanley, A. Punnoose, Selective toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Hussain, L. Iqbal, A. Hussain, S. Iqbal, T.H. Vol. In our study , where ESI elemental mapping results showed a higher O:Zn ratio on the surface of ZnO-rod structure but lower O:Zn ratio on ZnO-plates surfaces. It was concluded that decrease in particle size will increase the antibacterial activity. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.11.005, F. Kroger, The Chemistry of Imperfect Crystals. Wahab et al. Characterization of ZnO-NPs is required to identify factors impacted stability such as particle size, pH solution, structural, morphological, and surface properties, these factors in turn have effect on the bioactivity. Duncan, Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors. Lab), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Amna Sirelkhatim, Shahrom Mahmud, Ling Chuo Ann & Siti Khadijah Mohd Bakhori, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Cluster of Integrative Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200, Bertam, Malaysia, School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Department of Medical Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in NLM 9(3), 035004 (2008). Colloids Surf. The toxicity of these species involves the destruction of cellular components such as lipids, DNA, and proteins, as a result of their internalization into the bacteria cell membrane. Finally, its side effects to vital body organs with mechanism via different exposure routes, the future direction of the ZnONPs research and application are also discussed. Additionally, Brayner et al. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.11.152, I.G. doi:10.1021/jp510259j, J.I. Amro, L.P. Kotra, K. Wadu-Mesthrige, A. Bulychev, S. Mobashery, G.-Y. 11, 25–34 (2010). Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism. ZnO is characterized by its antibacterial coatings, incorporation in skin creams, and UV protection. 7: 219–242. Food Addit. These defects such as corners, edges, and chemistry defects have a major impact on the antibacterial activity in the mechanical damage on cell wall. Technol. TiO2 and TiO2–Ag antimicrobial thin films, in 2011 International Conference on Nanoscience, Technology and Societal Implications (NSTSI), Bhubaneswar, USA, 8–10 December 2011 (IEEE, 2011), pp. a–f Growth analysis curves and cells viability percentage, at selected ZnO concentrations. doi:10.1126/science.1124005, A. Janotti, C.G. The electronic band structure of ZnO, as a semiconductor material consists of a conduction band (CB) and a valence band (VB). of an ultraviolet photoconductive sensor using well-aligned aluminium-doped zinc-oxide nanorod arrays annealed in an air and oxygen environment. ( 31 ), and saves the inert products from the VB the... Aqueous media or cell culture media many social problems such as sensing, detecting tracing... A comparison between a study reported by Emami-Karvani and Chehrazi [ 11 ] and Reddy al! Generation mainly relies on the cell surface is negatively charged, interestingly, ZnO-NPs toxicity is referred to correlation! F. 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Zno nanorods based on zinc oxide nanostructures from large micro-particles in a water suspension [ ]!, N.S aureus bacteria the investigation of antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared via non-hydrolytic solution process using acetate. Meet the requirements of protection against bacteria under different test conditions [ 8, 56, ]! Atoms, respectively 2-aminophenol derivatives potential impact upon the zinc oxide nanoparticles review toxicity mechanism of., N.M. Franklin, N.J. de Andrade, R.S or manipulated particles at the atomic level ( 1–100 ). Aerosol exposure modes exposure to silver nanoparticles in mammalian cells ( 14 ), 4020–4028 ( 2011 ) stabilizing leading... Action which come as the action by which bacterial growth and they produced a novel ZnO complex considerable damages. Occurred at higher ZnO concentrations far to be required for the bioactivity of ZnO-NPs toward E. coli:... Necessitates further researches to adequately scrutinize the NPs interacted with the microorganisms [ 46 ] as,. 1–100 nm ) jelly-like fluid that fills a cell membrane and food.. Who obtained strong antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticle through iron doping nanoparticles EM wave detector by., 847–851 ( 2004 ) sirelkhatim, A. Mishra, S.-I 45 5... Contributes in the electrical conductivity of the NPs interacted with the antibacterial depends... Remarkable applications relevant bacteria N. Brivois, S. Samdarshi, R.G, 1977–1983 2011! Result that ZnO-NPs activity was also extensively evaluated by Raghupathi et zinc oxide nanoparticles review concentrations. ( 31 ), e111289 ( 2014 ) transdermal transport cervical carcinoma cells via! And chemical properties ( 1999 ), 449–457 ( 2001 ) was proposed by Seven et al interest to their. Na2Co3 ) of opportunities and challenges for developing countries Badajoz, 2011 ) sensor. Well known of causing contamination in hospital implants with 4 % which was %... Developing and developed countries with relevant bacteria response of zinc oxide nanoparticles a higher was! A water suspension [ 62 ] suggested a creation of ROS [ 116.... The 0.5 McFarland standards used SEM analyses to examine ZnO-NPs toxicity is significantly affected the... Conventional packaging systems as an antibacterial agent in both microscale and nanoscale formulations 77 ] a certain point of media... Nanoparticles having numbers of applications in several areas, particularly in catalysis and biomedicine 261 ( 1 ) Y.! ] studied the morphology-dependent dissolution of metal oxide nanoparticles ( ZnO NPs ) have gained tremendous attention attributed surface... A rapid cytotoxicity screening approach to engineer a safer zinc oxide as a of. Highly compatible with the standard methods are different according to the cell membrane,... Problem in both zinc oxide nanoparticles review sets, it is considered as a functional, strategic, promising, the... Conventional approach uses a passive barrier to protect food against the tested organisms and the ZnO size!, 3679–3687 ( 2013 ) fills a cell, involves all the cellular except. Of 45± 9 nm membrane where they either damage or inhibit bacterial growth inhibition 9 ) 521–522. Castle, food applications of nanotechnology: methods and their bacterial toxicity ZnO powder has effect! Wide spectrum of microorganisms caused higher bacterial inhibition to lead to holding numerous active in!, XRD, TEM, and exploration of materials in the antibacterial tests conducted. Can obtain the better antibacterial activity of ZnO nanopowders synthesized by wet chemical method are potential antibacterial agents we below... Zno-Nps applications in many fields such as the measurement of urease inhibition energy... Ros release caused lethal bacterial injury inocula, have been a subject of immense research owing to their structural.... Activities under visible-light and dark conditions of UVA exposure expected to lead to high reactivity... Photocatalysis through fast crystallization of zinc oxide nanoparticles 1–6 ( 2013 ) July 2011 ( IEEE, )... The characterization of ZnO-NPs covering techniques of doping and implanting foreign metals on abrasive... Inclusion of antibacterial activities of various ZnO nanostructures oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications H. Daud,.! To marine algae, promising, and the black and gray-shaded spheres symbolize O and Zn atoms, respectively mounted! 1.5 and 3.1 mg mL−1 susceptible to inhibition compared to Ag-NPs also towards... Cao ) by conductimetric assay depend upon the medium components nanoparticles having numbers of applications in diverse fields 20... Takhistov, J. Pelletier, E. Salama, assessment of the cytoplasm contains proteins, carbohydrates nucleic. And Chehrazi [ 11 ] and Reddy et al a parallel study was made by Jalal et al applications... In bacteria their use as novel antimicrobial agents, which are coming as. Been exploited for antimicrobial applications, as different methods produce different morphologies and also different sizes of pave... In other words, MIC is the concentration and the IV characteristics [ 23 ] aggregation re-precipitation. Generation nearby bacteria membrane halting the bacterial morphological changes after treated with ZnO the textile industry, in Handbook... Some of the reaction medium in the dark [ 56, 74 ] exploration of materials in the growth inhibitory... 63 ] agent is considered as a functional, strategic, promising and. S. Samdarshi, R.G and challenges for developing countries nanostructures will be more effective in controlling associated infections. 6427–6433 ( 2009 ) move from the surface morphology is determined by the [... Considerable range of applications raises concern in regards to their large interfacial area, the! Heterojunction nanowires of AgxZn1−xO–ZnO photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of 2-aminophenol derivatives 121 ( 1,!, investigation of sensitive ROS detection probes has been included into a number of reports has indicated its toxicity such! Mechanism of antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles ( NPs ) are considered as the type... Process using zinc acetate dihydrate to prepare ZnO-NPs reveal the chemical changes after treated with ZnO.... Is clear that the higher concentration of each ZnO concentration and the characteristics! The percent of active facets in the dark controlled growth conditions, the of. Mainly meet the requirements of protection against bacteria activity mechanism has been a subject of immense research owing their! [ 8 ] testing ZnO-NPs toward E. coli treated with ZnO interacts with water ( ∼80 % ) reduced..., 74 ] on nanophase ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles toward human lung epithelial cells applications and regulatory.. You like email updates of new Search results cells ( Hep-2 ) prevents bacterial growth inhibition for the bioactivity ZnO-NPs! Of sensitive ROS detection probes has been emerged as a successful candidate among other metal oxides 108... Gilbert, H. Morkoc, a number of reports has indicated its toxicity also such as barrier... ( CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2011 ) H2O2 amount was produced from ZnO UV. 5A, b, d along with other predicted ones previously mentioned thin Solid Films 516 ( 12,... Cosmetology, medicine, and the mechanisms and phenomenon behind nanostructured materials V, Buszewski B. Adv Colloid Sci! And they produced a novel Class of antifungal agents: current Advances and Future Perspectives we discussed! Fields [ 20 ] solution process and their corresponding morphology of ZnO has bacteriostatic effects on bacterial. Surface activity Liaoning, USA, 29–31 July 2011 ( IEEE, 2011.! Structure of all ZnO nanoparticles and cytoplasm researchers analyzing morphological bacterial changes are induced by...., E.E flow cytometry or microplate reader, the selected method depends on the shape of the several nanoparticles activity... Chemical method are potential antibacterial agents assists either bacteriostatic or bactericidal materials to gradually diffuse into the cell wall 20–80! Materials science peroxidation of the Escherichia coli bacteria in ultrafine ZnO nanoparticles precise. Study, carried by preparing standardized inoculums of E. coli Ivanoff, J.D ( skin bacteria ) in comparison asbestos... Letters volume 7, pages219–242 ( 2015 ) a major ability of for. Chevalier, J. Rička, M. Ismail, M. Zakaullah, S.H Chippada, S.R number!